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Free computer game onlineComputer games (video game online) - a type of computer software designed for entertainment or educational purposes (interactive entertainment) and requiring the user (player) to solve logical or arcade tasks. Computer games can be run on personal computers, special machines, game consoles, televisions, mobile phones and other mobile devices, collectively referred to as hardware platforms. Tasks that a player may face in computer games vary from genre to genre and may include, for example, solving a puzzle task, eliminating virtual opponents or competing with artificial intelligence or other players (multiplayer game). Interactive entertainment for professional purposes is called esports.
Computer games originate from board and role-playing games and various sports disciplines. The beginnings of electronic software for entertainment purposes are associated with prototypes constructed at American universities. Computer games became a mass product due to the popularity of television consoles and slot machines in the 1970s. With the progressive miniaturization of platforms and the emergence of portable gaming devices, they became increasingly popular. Specialist studies on gaming (ludology) indicate their significant impact on the player's psyche, both positive and negative. The controversy also concerns the classification of interactive entertainment as an art field.
History without SteamThe beginning of computer games may date back to 1947 - the date of invention of the analogue missile simulator. In the 1950s and 1960s, a series of academic productions recognized as computer games was created, including Tennis for Two and Spacewar. However, the games entered mass circulation only thanks to the American product Pong by Atari, as well as the appearance of slot machines (popular thanks to such works as Space Invaders and Pac-Man) and the first consoles. The great popularity of slot games resulted in profits of about 5-7 billion dollars. However, the collapse of the computer game market was caused by the collapse of the industry in 1983.
The gap caused by the collapse of the American industry was used by the Japanese Nintendo to enter the industry market; it was significantly successful thanks to the Nintendo Entertainment System console, which improved the situation and encouraged rival companies to compete with Nintendo. Personal computers have become more important as a gaming platform. In the 1990s, the spread of three-dimensional graphics and multiplayer gameplay revived the industry. The beginning of the 21st century saw the penetration of interactive entertainment into the Internet (online games) and mobile devices.
Features of computer cool gamesThe basic feature of a computer game, as well as other forms of play, is the goal that is set by its creators or recipient (player). On the road, the player encounters a challenge that he or she has to overcome, and the game itself is made more attractive by its audiovisual form. The key issue with computer games is their interactivity, which distinguishes them from, for example, the television medium; the player shows personal involvement in the events on screen and can influence them. A character or organisational unit in the virtual world is controlled by the player using a controller, which can be a keyboard with a mouse, a joystick, a stylus, a gamepad, motion controllers, a touch screen (for smartphones and tablets) and other special devices. In addition, computer games require a receiver that displays the video signal they produce; the function of these receivers is performed by a monitor, hardware display or television. The course of the game is called gameplay.
Computer games are characterized by a narrative that determines how they are completed and the player's abilities. Depending on the degree of freedom given to the player, the gameplay narrative is divided into three types: linear, which puts the emphasis on the plot at the expense of the player's freedom; branched, in which there are side effects in addition to the main plot thread; and distributed, which gives the player the greatest freedom in creating the action. The narrative of the game may be disturbed by computer errors or player's deception against the computer.
Sociological aspectComputer games have been developed primarily to meet the human need for fun; they compete with other forms of entertainment such as board games and social games. The fact of their spread and the human need for entertainment (homo ludens) have become the subject of advertisements referring to the form of play; this is connected with the overwork of consumer societies (recently also Poland) and the need to relax. However, apart from their entertainment functions, computer games also have a didactic function - due to their specificity (emotional involvement of the player) and educational values they support socialisation in people, although there are still prejudices about their didactic content. An important feature of computer games is also the replacement of human company for a lonely person.
In the United States, computer games are treated as entertainment for a mature audience, as confirmed by the 2012 report of the American Entertainment Software Association, which estimates the average age of players at 30 years. The report also shows that games are bought by people who are on average 35 years old, with 42% of respondents believing that games are more valuable entertainment for them than films and music albums. Among the games available online, respondents most often chose adaptations of board and social games (42%); according to the NPD Group's data, among the interactive productions sold, players most often bought action games (19%) and shooters (18.4%), while when research into games for personal computers was narrowed down, strategic games (27.6%) and role-playing games (21.1%) were the most popular subject of their interest.
The psychological aspectThe influence of computer games on the psyche of players arouses controversy among scientists who have been studying them since the 1980s. The most frequently presented accusations of a new form of entertainment are stimulating aggressiveness and emotionality in viewers to a greater extent than, for example, television, their direct involvement in the creation of violence on screen (in the case of so-called aggressive games), detachment from reality, and the tendency to addiction. However, such accusations are usually not precisely covered by research and, moreover, their creators assume that all games are generally aggressive, which is untrue; according to data from Pan European Game Information, about 40% of the assessed productions are suitable for children over 3 years old. In addition, the potential increase in aggressiveness is primarily for single players and does not manifest itself in a multiplayer game.
Computer games can support human development. They improve manual skills useful in a professional career, practice faster decision making in real life, and in some circumstances improve players' ability to distinguish shades of gray. Some games are also used for therapeutic purposes, for example to combat depression. Interactive entertainment can also be used to practise logical thinking and reasoning, and to solve problems through trial and error. Research is being conducted into the beneficial effects of computer games in depression, post-traumatic stress syndrome, early dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis.
The cultural aspectComputer games draw on various types of media: books, comics or films, thus processing mass culture; one of the manifestations of these references is the placement of so-called easter eggs in games. Therefore, games are considered to be works of postmodern art, because each player perceives the message contained in them differently and thanks to their actions they sometimes become co-authors of the game. The interactive value of the games inspires artists; literary and film adaptations of interactive art are also produced, and the players' initiative is taken by the machines.
The controversy concerns the treatment of computer games as an area of art. The first controversy around this subject was caused in 2000 by Jack Kroll, a Newsweek journalist, who believed that games cannot convey the emotional relations characteristic of art; his publication has met with fierce criticism. American critic Roger Ebert also strongly opposed calling computer games art. In 2010, he stated that games do not serve the purpose of contemplation, characteristic of painting, for example; a different point of view was presented by producer Kellee Santiago from Thatgamecompany studio, who considered interactive entertainment to be works comparable to traditional art. Ebert's accusations were overturned by the American game designer Brian Moriarty, who pointed out that traditional understanding of art was already shaken by the work of Marcel Duchamp, so even games can be art. Diana Poulsen, an art historian, also considered them to be works that can be the subject of cultural research and in themselves contain considerable artistic value; a broad argument about their role as art was given by the philosopher Grant Tavinor, who pointed out that when understanding art as an emotion-generating art in the audience, games also fit into this definition. Although some game developers were skeptical of calling interactive entertainment art, such as Hideo Kojima or Auriea Harvey and Michaël Samyn from the Tale of Tales, the Smithsonian American Art Museum presented an exhibition entitled The Art of Video Games in 2011.
The sporting aspectComputer games are also a field of sport, which uses the possibilities of multiplayer gameplay for professional competition between players; individual games are then separate sports competitions. Electronic sports have become famous thanks to the World Cyber Games, which have been organised since 1998; other championships of this type were created in the following years.
Application of computer games in practiceComputer game solutions find a wide range of applications, which is expressed by the term gamification - the infiltration of the game world into reality. The first institution to benefit from games was the American army, which in the 1950s started to use them in the form of simulations to train soldiers. Since that period, the business sector has been using games to train employees' competitive skills and modern management. Since the creation of The Oregon Trail in 1974, computer games have also been used for educational purposes and in school education. The gamification process is also visible in marketing strategies and social advertising.
Game classificationsThe tasks facing the player vary according to the genre of the game; in practice, some productions combine features of several genres. The simplest, albeit incomplete classification divides computer games into eight types: educational, role-playing, puzzle, adventure, sports, strategy, simulation and arcade, which in turn are divided into about 40 special genres.
Age classificationThere are a number of rating systems for computer games, which grade them in order to protect minors from unsuitable content. For example, the US has an Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), most European countries have a Pan European Game Information (PEGI), Germany has an Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (USK), and Japan has a Computer Entertainment Rating Organization (CERO). The ways of enforcing rating systems in different countries are different. In the United States, games designated by the ESRB as adult only are withdrawn from circulation, while PEGI and CERO are not legally enforceable in the countries using them.
Creating computer gamesThe basis for creating a computer game, just like computer software, is its programming, which is often done using the game engine. Three-dimensional productions use, among others, the id Tech, Unreal Engine and CryEngine engine families. In addition to programmers, the game production studio includes designers (less often directors), composers, screenwriters, artists and others. Since computer games are mainly commercial products (with the omission of independent games), their creators must determine to which genre the game belongs, what its purpose is and for whom it is intended.
The process of creating contemporary games is undertaken using modern technologies that increase the realism of the presented world (an example is motion capture technology, as well as physical engines such as Havok, PhysX or Euphoria). After beta testing to detect errors in the game's code and mechanics, the finished product is released into circulation in the form of a media (for example DVD) or as part of digital distribution.
Computer game industryThe computer games industry is a term used to describe a business sector that produces, promotes (marketing) and sells computer games for commercial purposes. The promotion of commercial games is carried out by means of promotional campaigns, publication of demo versions of games or at fairs and festivals related to the industry. The most popular fairs are the Electronic Entertainment Expo based in Los Angeles, the German Gamescom (formerly Games Convention) and the Japanese Tokyo Game Show.
Over the years, large industry companies have developed, including Electronic Arts, Activision Blizzard, Sony Computer Entertainment, Microsoft, Nintendo or Ubisoft, responsible for publishing games or creating interactive entertainment platforms; in addition, there are independent studios producing games and releasing them on their own. In addition to traditional box sales, digital distribution via the Internet and services such as PlayStation Store, Steam and Xbox Live Marketplace are becoming increasingly popular. The practice used by game developers is to create add-ons and extensions and downloadable content that extend the life of the games. The gamers' initiative to the computer gaming industry is to release game modifications that change the rules of the game, adding new threads and possibilities. The computer games industry is a profitable source of business; the estimated value of this market in 2011 was 52 billion dollars. By May 2015, the global gaming industry was already worth $74.2 billion, of which $23.6 billion was for the North American, 23.1 billion for Asia, 22.1 billion for Europe and 4.5 billion for South America. The mobile gaming segment was worth $22.3 billion in May 2015, retail gaming $19.7 billion and free-to-play MMOs $8.7 billion. The social networking games segment was worth 7.9 billion. The downloadable content sales market was worth 7.5 billion. Other market segments were worth no more than $3 billion each. According to Newzoo's report from 2017, around 2.2 billion people play computer games worldwide.
The media associated with the industry organise numerous festivals at which they award prizes to individual games. Such ceremonies include Spike Video Game Awards, Interactive Achievement Awards, British Academy Video Games Awards, Games Critics Awards and Independent Games Festival.
Gambling genresWhat can we play? What kind of computer games? We answer!
Leisure gamesCasual game is a recreational game, everyday game - a kind of computer games, characterized by simple rules of play and the fact that they do not require the player to spend a lot of time and commitment.
Production and distribution costs of this type of games are usually low. Casual games are most often run on personal computers as a separate program or in web browsers, but they are also popular on consoles and mobile phones. 74% of people playing casual games are women. Research also shows that most casual players are elderly people.
Features of a typical game of this type:
- easy gameplay - the game can be operated with the mouse
- adapting to the very short time that can be spent playing (e.g. during a break)
- the ability to quickly reach the final stage or a continuous game without recording its status
Puzzle gamesComputer puzzle game - a genre of computer game in which the player must use the ability to think logically. The puzzles contained in this type of games also sometimes test strategic skills, the ability to recognize characters, perform specific sequences or add words.
Platform gamesComputer platform game (platformer game) - an arcade game consisting mainly of moving the hero through many more or less varied levels, often on multi-level platforms (hence the name of the genre), avoiding traps and liquidating or avoiding enemies, as well as collecting various rewards and extras - such as money, gemstones, extra lives or power-ups.
Arcade gamesArcade computer game - a computer game in which successful completion requires a reflex and efficient operation of the controller buttons. In such games, what matters most is speed and continuous action, there are no situations in which the player would have to think strategically or solve puzzles, as is the case in adventure and puzzle games. The first commercially successful production of this type was the 1972 Pong game.
Adventure gamesComputer adventure game - a genre of computer games in which the player plays the role of a protagonist in the story, whose progress is determined by exploration of the presented world and solving puzzles. The genre's emphasis on the storyline means that its games can draw heavily on media such as literature and film. Adventure games use the convention of various literary genres, and are also mostly designed for one player due to the difficulty of transferring characters and storylines to the mechanics of multiplayer games.
In the West, adventure games were most popular from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, when they were considered one of the most technically advanced genres, but later became a niche genre. In East Asia, on the other hand, adventure games remained popular in the form of visual novels, accounting for about 70% of the games released for personal computers in Japan in 2006.
Action gamesAction computer game - a genre of computer games in which the whole gameplay is based mainly on the speed of action that the player is involved in and the player's reflexes.
Sports gamesComputer sports game - a genre of computer games whose subject matter is sports related to physical activity. Sports games simulate selected aspects of a real or imaginary sports discipline, requiring from the player skills related to dexterity and strategic thinking.
CharacteristicsComputer sports games are divided into two subspecies. In the first one, the player directly directs players in sports games, and team management is an optional feature of the game. In the second one, the player has no direct control over the players and his task is to manage the team of athletes - this type of game is called a sports manager or manager game. The division of sports games into simulation games (trying to reflect faithfully the reality of a given discipline), arcade games (action-oriented games and simplifying the rules of play, for example mobile games) and managerial games is also proposed. Sports games simulate different disciplines: team games (for example, football, basketball, ice hockey), athletics (sub-genre Olympics), combat sports (boxing, wrestling) or extreme sports (snowboarding, skateboarding).
The main mode of play in games related to team sports is usually a virtual match where the player can interrupt the game to, for example, replace players or develop new tactics. Other game modes, related to other characteristics of the discipline, allow you to check athletes' skills and statistics, hire or sell players, change your lineup or check your schedule. The game menu in such modes is often illustrated by tables and charts.
The rules of play in sports games are usually similar to those in real sports. Playing modes depend on the discipline, for example in team sports simulations the player can play a single game, lead a team in one season, tournament or over the years; in the latter case there are often options specific to the manager's profession.
Racing gamesComputer racing (commonly: racers) - a genre of computer games consisting in racing with vehicles against computer-controlled opponents or with the person or persons sitting next to them (the so-called split screen), or via the Internet or local network. While racing, players try to get as high a place as possible or drive the designated route in the shortest possible time. The player can also race against a computer (computer player), which usually has different difficulty levels. A variation of computer racing is simracing. Series of racing games include Burnout, Forza Motorsport, Gran Turismo, Need for Speed and Test Drive.
Role-playing gamesComputer Role-Playing Game (cRPG) - A genre of computer role-playing games in which the player controls a character (or team) who moves around a fictional world. Often, the player creates his own character by defining his features and appearance. During the course of the game, you can help NPCs and kill enemies to advance to new levels and gain new skills. The computer role-playing game can be played in different conventions, such as fantasy, science fiction or steampunk.
The first computer role-playing games were created in the 1970s, inspired mainly by traditional role-playing games. Many cRPG games have similar terminology, mechanics and game world. Sub-genres of role-playing games are: action role-playing game, hack and slash, jRPG, MMORPG, roguelike, MUD and SUD.
CRPG games come from traditional role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons, and often use their mechanics and worlds. Typically, the player travels with a team of characters to complete tasks with. Along the way, adventurers solve logical puzzles and fight their opponents. A key feature of the genre is that the player often creates the main character, and character ratios such as life points increase over time.
An important role in these types of games is played by a random factor, in traditional RPGs represented by bone throws, replaced here by pseudo-randomly generated computer values. These values determine, among other things, whether the character managed to hit the enemy, how well one character bandaged or cured the other, and so on.
The game usually has a pre-prepared plot, often non-linear, sometimes divided into several smaller parts (chapters). It is usually impossible to complete a chapter without completing certain specific tasks.
The storyline and the game worldThe main task in most cRPG games is to save the world. There are frequent storyline phrases, such as betrayal or previously unknown kinship. The action of the game takes place in a fantasy or science fiction world, where the player can do unrealistic things in real life. Less games are produced, depicting contemporary or near future events. A well-constructed storyline often provides half the entertainment of the game. People playing cRPG appreciate long cut scenes more than people playing action games.
MMORPG gamesMMORPG (stands for Massively multiplayer online role-playing game) - a type of computer RPG where a large number of players can play with each other in the virtual world. As in other types of role-playing games, the player plays the character and directs his actions.
Access to MMORPGs is usually provided by the game manufacturer. These types of games are very popular all over the world. However, it is difficult to estimate a specific number, due to the fact that publishers tend to give numbers from their databases as the total number of people who have played the game at all. However, based on publishers' revenues, the number of players in 2010 was estimated at 61 million, of which 47 million in the US alone.
MMORPGs are now considered to be a subgroup of MMO games, although it was the MMORPGs in this group that first appeared.
MMORPG featuresMost MMORPGs have:
- a style of play based on a role-playing game such as Guild Wars or World of Warcraft, i.e.: tasks to be completed, enemies to be defeated, newer and newer equipment to be acquired, gaining new experience levels;
- character development system: increase of skills and/or character level thanks to gained experience points;
- economy based on trading between players or between players and NPCs;
- a system of guilds or clans to which players can join;
- game masters who supervise the game world;
- administrators who supervise the game server.
First worldsThe MMORPG genre was initiated by text games, so called MUD (Multi-User Dungeon, Domain, Dimension). The first game of this type was created by Richard Bartle and Roy Mercer in 1978. These were games running on private servers (usually at universities, sometimes without the knowledge of administrators), which could be connected via Telnet. The game was played by issuing commands, thanks to which the player could react with the environment.
Development of commercial projectsThe first online graphics game was Club Caribe, created by LucasArts in 1988 for the Commodore 64 platform. The game was not a real RPG, although there were interactions between the players. The first graphic MMORPG was Neverwinter Nights (AOL), created by designer Don Daglow and programmer Cathryn Mataga. The game was available to PC users from 1991 to 1997. Both games were paid to access: it cost $6 per hour.
The successor of Neverwinter Nights was The Shadow of Yserbius, created by Joe Ybarry. The game was available from 1992 to 1996.
A global MMORPGAccess to the global Internet allowed game developers to create truly massive RPGs. This was tantamount to obtaining profits from users from all over the world. Meridian 59 (launched by 3DO in 1996) was the first MMORPG with a global reach. It allowed players to observe the world from the perspective of their controlled heroes. It was the first MMORPG to hit the covers of computer game magazines.
The Realm Online was a project launched by Sierra Online shortly after Meridian 59. It had 2D animated graphics, also in battle scenes. It put him higher than MUDs.
In the same year Ultima Online was created. It had 2D graphics and the world was presented in isometric projection. It was the first one that came to our country quite massively, mainly due to the emulators that allowed to set up their own server (so called shard), usually free and allowing to play a pirate copy of the game. Many of these servers offered their own developments, or even the world, climate and assumptions, and had a significant impact on the development of MMORPGs in Poland.
At that time, online games were becoming increasingly popular in South Korea. Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds, created by Jake Song, began operating in 1996 and was immediately bought by millions of players. Song's next game, Lineage, was produced in 1998 and was an even greater success. It has spread to millions of players in South Korea and Taiwan.
In 2001 RuneScape, created by Jagex Ltd. It is a multiplayer game, which already had about one million players on a global scale. Another game was EverQuest, produced by Verant Interactive, and then acquired by Sony Online Entertainment, which led the MMORPG to success in the West. In 2003 MapleStory was published in Korea by Nexon and later in the rest of the world. Also in 2003, Korean studio Webzen released MU Online.
In late November 2003, PlayNC's Lineage 2: The Chaotic Chronicle was released in the Korean market, followed by the US and European markets in April 2004. The game gained great popularity in Korea and the USA, and gained a lot of fans in Europe. One of the greatest successes in the history of computer games has been made by World of Warcraft and although you have to pay 13 euros a month to play on the official server, the game box has been sold worldwide in about 13.5 million copies. In January 2007 the first supplement, World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade, was released, which sold in full circulation in Poland, and on the first day 2.4 million copies were sold worldwide, which was a world record at that time.
Strategy gamesComputer strategy game - a genre of computer games in which victory requires primarily thinking and planning skills. Strategy games emphasize challenges of strategic, tactical and sometimes also logistical nature. Some representatives of the genre also offer challenges concerning the economy and discovering new areas. Most strategy games are divided into four sub-genres depending on whether the game is played in real time or turn-based, as well as whether the game focuses on strategic or tactical tasks.
Strategy games are a genre of computer games where achieving victory requires proper thinking and planning. More specifically, the player must plan a series of actions against the opponent(s), and the aim of the game is usually to reduce the hostile forces. The victory is achieved by better planning than the opponent, while the element of chance plays a smaller role. In most strategic computer games, the player can look at the world of the game from a bird's eye view, as well as indirectly control the units assigned to him. As a result, a significant proportion of strategy games contain elements of combat of varying intensity, as well as a variety of tactical and strategic options. The games of this genre often test not only the player's military skills, but also his ability to explore the world presented and manage the economy.
MechanicsUnits and conflict
In strategy games, conflict takes place between communities or individual fighters, usually called units. It depends on the game how many types of units a player can manage, but each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Units vary in their ability and speed of movement, and have a different number of life points and resistance to damage. They also have different parameters related to attack strength and range. Although units are mostly used for combat purposes, they can also be used for other purposes such as transporting other units and conducting reconnaissance. Unmovable objects, such as turrets, are also treated as units. If a unit is destroyed, the player loses the benefit of the unit. Most strategy games allow the player to build new units in dedicated buildings or factories.
The player gives commands to the units, usually by clicking on them with the mouse and choosing a command from the menu. Experienced game users also use keyboard shortcuts. Commands usually carried out by units include movement, attack, stop, hold position; some strategy games also offer more complex commands. Some units sometimes have special abilities, such as the ability to be invisible to others, which can be counterbalanced by the presence of units detecting invisible objects. In some strategy games there are commanders who provide additional modifiers for other units. Ability to cross normally inaccessible terrain and cross other units can also be an option for directed objects. Non-fighting abilities include the ability to repair or construct new units or buildings.
Even in the case of imaginary or fantasy conflicts, strategy games try to reconstruct tactical circumstances of major importance using history. Methods such as flanking, sabotage, or cutting off supply lines are an integral part of the battlefield. An important element of the strategy may be the location of units in a certain area, as in this case they receive or lose their strategic advantage. In some strategic games, such as Civilization V or Medieval II: Total War, conflicts can manifest themselves in the form of diplomacy or spying. However, the main form of conflict is armed struggle, because according to the game designers, it would not be attractive to conduct disputes without the use of violence.
Economics, resources and improvements
In strategic games, the recipient is faced with additional tasks of an economic nature. These may include building construction, population maintenance and resource management. To cope with these tasks, strategy games use a window interface.
Most strategy games allow players to accumulate resources that can be exchanged for units or buildings such as factories. The amount of resources and their types vary from game to game. In some games, resources are scattered across the map in large amounts, and a suggested tactic is to take them over. Others emphasize how the resources are managed, and the availability of resources to individual players is balanced in them. A small part of the games do not pay attention to resources, giving the player a predetermined amount of units.
Strategy games often allow the player to use resources for improvements and research. Some of the improvements contribute to the player's overall economy. Others benefit a unit or type of units, which is done by unlocking or increasing specific battle skills. Sometimes improvements become available after the construction of buildings that unlock more advanced constructions. In games with more upgrades there is sometimes a tech tree, a chain of upgrades required to unlock new units, buildings and additional abilities. In some games, the skill trees are quite long; the 4X sub-genre stands out with the largest skill trees.
Map and exploration
Older strategy games had the same bird's eye view as board games. More modern games of the genre introduced an isometric perspective. Despite the development of three-dimensional graphics and the possibility to manipulate the camera, strategy games most often use the divine perspective. However, the point of view from behind the avatar is rarely accepted. The standard of a top view has been introduced to provide players with a clear view of the game world and to make it possible to adopt more effective strategies.
Exploration plays a key role in most strategy games. The landscape is often covered in darkness, which is revealed when the player's units arrive in an area. The ability to explore can be limited by different types of terrain, such as hills, water or other obstacles. Even if an area has already been discovered, it can remain dimmed if there are no player units nearby. This design technique is called war fog - a player can gain an overview of the area, but not of units in the discovered area. This allows opponents to make a surprising attack from areas that have been previously discovered.
Simulation gamesComputer simulation game, simulator - a kind of computer game whose task is to imitate the impression of different sensations that a person experiences in everyday reality. There are e.g. flight simulators, simulations of all types of land, water and air vehicles, space vehicles. They are characterized by the fact that their creators make every effort to resemble reality as much as possible or to create a reality completely different from the contemporary world (e.g. space simulators). Professional cabin simulators are used to train special units and pilots.
The advantage of most computer simulations is the fact that they are created by specialists from fields typical for a given simulation, e.g. commandos help to develop a game simulating the battlefield, and active pilots - plane flight simulations.
One of the new possibilities of the simulators is to simulate everyday life and human behaviour in different circumstances, as exemplified by a series of games called The Sims or Tycoon.
Survival horror gamesSurvival horror - a sub-genre of action adventure games inspired by the fantasy of horror, where the main goal is to keep the hero alive. The name survival-horror was first used by Capcom in 1996 while advertising Resident Evil.
The player is often prone to injury and has a small number of items, which puts emphasis on solving puzzles and avoiding a fight. Survival horror games usually require rationing of items such as ammunition. Levels are often designed as dark and claustrophobic (often using dark or shaded light conditions and a camera that restricts visibility) to keep the player in suspense. The first survival horror game is considered to be Haunted House from 1982.
Educational gamesEducational game - a game whose rules have been developed in such a way that its elements serve to improve the skills or broaden the knowledge of players. Apart from its purely entertaining values, such a game stimulates the development of players in specific directions and areas. Educational games are a popular didactic tool, valued for its effectiveness, achieved by making the didactic process more attractive. Although their primary goal is education, they constitute a form of entertainment, which brings additional cognitive value - activation of the limbic system, connected, among others, with evoking positive emotions (feeling of pleasure; see hedonism), stimulates the brain to work and develop. It is a natural mechanism of survival and adaptation: pleasure teaches us to distinguish between what is good and what is beneficial for us (stimulates learning processes).
Almost every game contains educational elements, but in educational games, learning and training are among the main goals and are not just added values. Educational games differ from others in that they are primarily designed to teach and stimulate development, and entertainment is a form of knowledge transfer and a tool to improve skills.
A very good example of how important the goal is to attract the attention of the recipient is the text of Catherine's Economies entitled The Use of Computer Games in the Process of Enhancing Programming Skills among Children and Young People, in which it shows how people who create games act while creating their works:
It is also a common practice to use a certain amount of manipulation, e.g. elements that cause students to focus primarily on achieving a certain goal. This can consist, for example, in highlighting the advantages of a given goal and, at the same time, masking the effort required to achieve it.