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Movie - an audiovisual work, consisting of scenes that consist of one or more (up to several dozen) shots. Originally films were shown in cinemas, nowadays also on TV and other devices such as video recorders, DVD players, blu-ray players.

Film technology - free movie streaming websites


The basic medium on which the film was recorded and from which the film was projected was a photosensitive 35 mm photographic film. On film tape, the image is recorded in the form of single frames, moving in a cinema projector at a speed of 24 frames per second (in the era of silent cinema it was 16 frames per second).

Other tape widths were used less frequently: 70, 16, 8 mm and super 16 and super 8. For the purposes of television, films are also recorded on magnetic media (Beta SP) and digital media (Beta digital, DVCAM, High Definition).

Screen proportions

Initially, films were shown on screens in the ratio of 1:1.33 (base 4, height 3) - this format was also adopted for TV screen. After the introduction of the soundtrack to the film tape, the standard format was 1:1.37. In the fight against the growing competition of television in the 1950s a wide panoramic screen (cinemascope) was invented. Cameras and projectors used anamorphotic lenses; the screen was lengthened to a ratio of 1:2.55. In the 1960s, the so-called cinerama was used with 70 mm tape, with the screen in the ratio of 1:2.75.

Currently, cinemas most often use the intermediate format of the so-called cassette (1:1.66 or 1:1.85), and 70 mm tape was used to display three-dimensional images in the IMAX system. The screen here has a ratio of 1:1.43, and the frame is set on the tape horizontally and not vertically as on 35 mm tape.

Technological development

Most contemporary films are sounded - that is, they have sound closely synchronized with the image. In the past, silent films were popular, where all the texts appeared as subtitles.

There were several breakthrough moments in the history of the film. The first of the most important was the introduction of sound, then colour, various screen formats (e.g. panoramic screen - cinemascope), three-dimensional films (see IMAX), stereo sound (Dolby Stereo). One of the recent breakthroughs was the emergence of digital technology for both staging effects and image recording (High Definition). This is especially true for animated film, where 3D animation imitating 3D space is becoming increasingly common (see e.g. Final Fantasy - realistic 3D animation, imitating an actor's film).

Film types

Film is a very broad field and can be divided in many ways. The basic and most popular one is the division into types:

  • experimental film - a work belonging to this type does not have to, for example, be based on a script, tell a story, apply generally accepted principles of film language. An experimental film takes two basic forms: abstract or associative. In the former, it is based entirely on the properties that the image carries (colour, shape). In the second, the main form of influence is the juxtaposition of various elements, sometimes seemingly incompatible with each other, in order to express the author's idea.
  • feature film - acting film of fiction,
  • animated film - created using classic stop-motion techniques - drawing or spatial (e.g. puppet and plasticine) or the latest computer techniques - 3D animation,
  • documentary film - a film with a non-native content, documenting reality,
  • educational film - for teaching and instructional purposes,
  • propaganda film - for the purposes that propaganda requires at any given time.
However, the notion of film in the social consciousness is most often associated with entertaining acting fictional films, also called feature films. Depending on their length, films can be divided into:

short - up to 22 minutes,
medium-length - 22 to 55 minutes,
full-length - over 55 minutes - 90-132 minutes on average.

TV series are made up of many episodes. The most frequently used lengths of episodes are 13, 15, 25, 30, 50 minutes.

Movie genre - watch movies online

Film genre - a collective form for films showing similar plot patterns, common iconography, specific types of characters and situations in which the action takes place. The genre consists in the reproduction of a formula assimilated in screen circulation, and is characterized by the stabilization and repeatability of individual films.

Conventionalism of films may result not only from iconography or feature construction, but also from the point of view of the camera or the technique used in editing. As a premise for classifying films according to particular genres, three film types were distinguished: animated film, documentary film and feature film. The greatest divisions of genres occur in the case of feature films.

What movies can be seen in: movie 123, fmovies, theater

A distinguishing feature of a given genre can be the expected reaction of a given viewer (e.g. horror film, comedy, melodrama, pornographic film, sensational film), subject matter (e.g. war film, martial arts film, gangster movie, crime movies, biographical film's), form (e.g. The film is a film that is not a film of a certain kind, but a film of a certain type). poetic film, avant-garde film, thriller film, music film, adventure film, noir film), time of action (e.g. historical film, fantasy film, fantasy film, costume film, coat and swords film), technology (e.g. animated film) or simply expressive iconography (a canonical example is the western). Films that are not subject to an unambiguous classification qualify for the general term drama, divided into psychological, moral and social films.

Since the times of film postmodernism, the classic division of genres has been blurred - plot schemes and iconographies are mixed up. So-called cross-gens are difficult to classify unambiguously.

Film history

The history of film, a field of art immortalized in the form of film tape, dates back to 1895, when the first public cinema screening using a cinematograph was held.

The origins

The creation of the film was associated with the discovery of the imperfections of human sight and its delays in image processing. As a result, devices deceiving the eyesight were created, which transformed a sequence of rapidly changing still images into a moving image. The earliest of these was the camera obscura; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, devices such as the Phoenakistiskop (1832), zoetrop (1834) and praxinoscope (1877) were also created. Today these practices are part of the early history of cinema and are called its prehistory. In 1877. Hannibal Goodwin developed a celluloid tape, which significantly accelerated the development of film technology. The first, primitive films were made indicatively in 1887 and 1888 by the French inventor Louis Le Prince; other pioneers of the art of film were Max Skladanowski and William Friese-Greene.

At the end of the nineteenth century, a number of experimental film screening devices were created (including a kinetoscope by Thomas Alva Edison from 1891). At the beginning of the twentieth century, between 1900 and 1915, several dozen types of devices for recording and demonstrating films with synchronized sound appeared in the United States and Europe. Examples include the chronograph (L. Gaumont, 1902), the biophone (O. Messter, 1903) and the camera (USA, 1908). With the help of these devices, about 1500 short sound films were made in Europe (in Germany, France, Italy and Denmark) until 1914. However, all these attempts ultimately failed to produce technically satisfactory results. Between 1907 and 1913 several dozen such devices were constructed and marketed in the USA, with the same result as in Europe.

A silent film (the 1990s - the end of the 1920s)

A cinema of attractions and the formation of a feature film (1895-1917)

The first creators in the history of cinema are considered to be the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière, who on 13 February 1895 patented the device called the cinematograph, and on 28 December 1895 organized the first public film screening, which took place in Paris. Among their first films were the documentary Exit of Workers from the Lumière factory in Lyon (1895), the first film comedy The Doggle Topper (1895) and The Entry of a Train to a Station in La Ciotat (1896). Although the Lumière brothers believed that film had no future as a technology, it quickly became a commercial product - in the United States Edison produced a series of cheap, calculated for the easy success of productions screened at fairs (the so-called nickelodeons); his aggressive policy towards competing film studios resulted in the relocation of production to California (Hollywood). The art of film, degraded to fair entertainment, was renewed by the diametrically French illusionist Georges Méliès with his famous work Journey to the Moon (1902), a scientific fantasy using the first film tricks in the history of cinema. The development of French cinematography led to the establishment of the Gaumont and Pathé film companies. The US gave birth to the Westerne genre, which was specific to the country, and which began with the open-air film The Robbery of the Express (1903, directed by Edwin Porter), with reliable editing, with the famous scene of a bandit measuring from a gun to an audience; this is where the first sensational films were made. Parallel to the development of the cinema, the first, as yet inept and very short, adaptations of plays and literary works were made.

The years 1908-1915 brought the slow twilight of the attractions cinematograph. At the same time, a new cinema appeared, narratively integrated. Now the viewer was supposed to get emotionally involved in following the plot on screen. Since 1911, when the construction of spacious cinemas with large projection rooms began, the viewer could watch them in increasingly comfortable conditions.

Development of film art (1917-1930)

The first truly epic film production, shot on a grand scale, was The Birth of the Nation (1915) by David Wark Griffith; it was the first time that dynamic editing and coherent narration were used, although Griffith's work aroused controversy because of its racist pronunciation; the director recuperated himself with the four-part epic Intolerance (1916) about the influence of hatred on the fate of humanity. The birth of film expressionism in Germany, characteristic for its aesthetic aspect, resulted in masterpieces such as Dr. Caligari's Cabinet (1919, dir. Robert Wiene), Nosferatu horror - a symphony of horror (1922, dir. Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau), Dr. Mabuse (1922, dir. Fritz Lang) and Metropolis (1926, dir. Fritz Lang); Swedish cinema experienced parallel periods of splendour, with the flagship productions of the Treasures of the Arne family (1919, dir. Mauritz Stiller), Furman of Death (1921, dir. Victor Sjöström) and Witches (1922, dir. Benjamin Christensen); the main representative of the increasingly popular Danish cinematography became Carl Theodor Dreyer (Martyrdom of Joan of Arc, 1928). In the United States at the turn of the 1910s and 1920s, a specific kind of film comedy was created, called Burlesque, based on situational comedy and gags; the most famous comedies from this period were Charles Chaplin (Fever of Gold, 1926) and Buster Keaton (General, 1926). The film industry also grew rapidly with the leading companies such as Paramount, Twentieth Century-Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros. and RKO Pictures. In the USSR, in turn, the so-called Soviet school of editing led to the creation of revolutionary cinematography, smuggling in a more or less direct way the communist propaganda and genesis of the Soviet state. Among the most famous artists of the Soviet 1920s were Sergei Eisenstein (Masterly Assembled Battleship Potiomkin, 1926), Vsevolod Pudovkin (Storm over Asia, 1927) and Dovzhenko (Land, 1930). The beginning of the 1920s was also the time of the birth of documentary reportage (Nanuk from the North, 1922, dir. Robert J. Flaherty; Man with Camera, 1929, dir. The Drillings' Dog, 1927, dir. Luis Buñuel).

An interesting episode of the silent film era is the development of German music cinema. Between 1914 and 1929, the music was performed live by singers and orchestra, but in close synchronization with the picture on the cinema screen. It consisted of displaying a score at the bottom of the screen, which allowed the conductor to lead the orchestra at the right pace for each scene.

The beginning of the sound film (late 1920s - early 1960s)

United States (1927-1959)

The appearance in the USA of the first film with the soundtrack entitled The Jazzzband Singer (1927, directed by Alan Crosland) enriched the film with new means of expression. It was quickly used by animator Walt Disney, who directed the first animated soundtrack under the name Willie the Steamboat (another name Willie the Steamboat, 1928). The popularity of the Jazzzband Singer led to the emergence of a genre of musical film whose early representatives were the films Gentlemen in Cylinders (1935, directed by Mark Sandrich), Lekkoduch (1936, directed by George Stevens) and the animated Snow White and Seven Dwarfs (1938, collective work). A gangster film genre was also developed in the United States, whose most famous representatives were Little Caesar (1930, dir. Mervyn LeRoy), Man with a Scar (1932, dir. Howard Hawks) and Angels with Dirty Faces (1937, dir. Michael Curtiz). The director Frank Capra initiated a series of plots that were committed to American capitalism and corruption (Their Nights, 1934; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1938). However, the artistic freedom of filmmakers in the USA was suppressed by the requirements of film companies and the introduction of the Hays Code. In 1939. Victor Fleming created the first masterpieces using Technicolor technology: Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz. At the same time, horror films and adventure films were very popular.

American cinematography entered the golden age in the 1940s and 1950s as a marker of new film genres. John Ford reactivated the collapsing western with his dynamic work The Stagecoach (1939). Rebecca's film (1940) by Alfred Hitchcock initiated the appearance in the film of elements of suspense, characteristic of his later productions (Charmed, 1945; The Fame; 1946; Dizziness, 1958). He survived the birth of the film noir thanks to the production of Maltese Falcon (1941, directed by John Huston); Orson Welles, in turn, created the masterpiece Citizen Kane (1941) with an extensive narrative structure and groundbreaking artistic means, bringing film art closer to literature. The Casablanca melodrama (1942, dir. Michael Curtiz), which referred to World War II in Europe, also proved famous. Other classic productions of the golden Hollywood era include the psychological dramas Fading Flame (1946, dir. George Cukor) and Sunset Boulevard (1950, dir. Billy Wilder). In the 1950s, the films were directed by George Cukor. In the 1950s, directors such as Fred Zinnemann (famous for his use of the synchronic montage western At Noon, 1952), Elia Kazan (East of Eden, 1955) became famous, Stanley Donen (Rain Song musical, 1952), Vincente Minnelli (American in Paris, 1951), Sidney Lumet (Twelve Angry People, 1958), Billy Wilder (Half Joke, Half Seriously, 1959) and William Wyler (Ben-Hur, 1959). The renaissance as a genre was experienced by western artists such as John Ford (The Seekers, 1954), Howard Hawks (Rio Bravo, 1959) and John Sturges (The Magnificent Seven, 1960). In the 1930s, he began to study the impact and influence of film on the viewer's psyche. In 1933, Payne Find, a foundation funding the study of cinema and its impact on children, conducted extensive professional research by a staff of sociologists, educators and psychologists. The published twelve-volume report showed that cinema is psychologically harmless and does not compete with reading.

Europe and Asia (1930-1963).

Meanwhile, in Europe, at the beginning of the 1930s, French cinematography was at the forefront. The Shocking Golden Age (1930, directed by Luis Buñuel) enriched the art of film with drastic means of expression, constituting a great treaty against the bourgeoisie. In France, an impressionistic trend developed, as well as poetic realism showing everyday life in lyrical convention; representatives of the latter were René Clair (Under the Roofs of Paris, 1930) and Jean Vigo (Atalanta, 1934). A separate chapter is devoted to the work of Jean Renoir (War Drama Comrades in Arms, 1937; Rules of the Game, 1939). The cinema of totalitarian Germany and the USSR, in turn, experienced further ideologization, sometimes in a rigid form (Soviet socialist realism), but this did not rule out the use of artistic means; representatives of this type of propaganda film art were Leni Riefenstahl (Triumph of the Will, 1934) and Sergei Eisenstein (Aleksander Nevsky, 1938; dylogy Ivan the Terrible, 1944).

After World War II, Italian directors began to deal with fascism, creating a trend called neorealism, characterized by a paradigmatic form and imitation of everyday life. The main representatives of neorealism were Roberto Rossellini (Rome, open city, 1945; Germany - year zero, 1948), Luchino Visconti (Earth trembles, 1948) and Vittorio De Sica (Bicycle Thieves, 1945; Miracle in Milan, 1950). In Great Britain, Laurence Olivier made an exemplary adaptation of Shakespearean literary art, Henry V (1944); the artistry of British directors included Carol Reed (Third Man, 1949) and David Lean (Kwai Bridge, 1957). In France at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s, Marcel Carné (Comedians, 1945) and Robert Bresson (Diary of the Rural Pastor, 1951) were successful. Other great personalities of the 1950s were Federico Fellini (La strada's film, 1954; the treatise on the artist's life Eight and a Half, 1963) and Ingmar Bergman (the metaphysical film The Seventh Seal, 1956; an insightful psychological drama Where strawberries grow, 1957).

In the 1950s, the European continent became familiar with Asian cinematography. The ambiguous drama Rashōmon (1950) directed by Akira Kurosawa gained worldwide fame. He recorded his directorial position with the adventure film Seven Samurai (1954) and Throne in Blood (1957), an adaptation of Shakespeare's play Macbeth. Apart from Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi (Lunar Tales, 1953) and Yasujirō Ozu (Tokyo Story, 1953) won recognition in Europe. Among the Indian filmmakers, Satyajit Ray stood out with his work The Road to the City (1955).

The currents of the new wave and the protest movements (mid-1950s - early 1980s)

New American cinema and its origins (1955-1979)

The changes of customs in the United States, associated with the birth of a rebellious generation against the bourgeois community, became apparent in the film Rebellion without a reason (1955, directed by Nicholas Ray); young people were portrayed as being left to their own devices, despite their wealth. At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, they were left to their own devices, despite their wealth. The independent director John Cassavetes created the Shadows improvisation (1959), a leading work of the New York Film School; the evocative anti-war dramas were created by Stanley Kubrick (Pathways of Glory, 1957; Dr. Strangelove, 1964), who also became famous for his canonical fantasy science film 2001: The Space Odyssey (1968), containing realistic special effects. Hitchcock was more and more bold in his way around the rules of the Hays Code, filming the drastic thrillers Psychosis (1960) and Birds (1963).

Despite the continued popularity of traditional Hollywood works, including My Fair Lady (1964, directed by George Cukor), after 1965 a great contestation movement broke the film's moral norms. Mike Nichols, whose works Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) and Graduate (1967) directly led to the overthrow of the Hays Code. Robert Altman, the author of the anti-war comedy MASH (1970), which indirectly refers to the Vietnam War, became the exponent of Hollywood myths. The brutality was exploited on an unprecedented scale by Sam Peckinpah in the convention of the poetics of violence (Wild Bunch, 1969). A new way of making films (new American cinema) was proposed by Dennis Hopper Hippie in his independent drama Free Rider (1969). In the 1970s, artists gradually began to become independent of Hollywood; it was then that new American cinema personalities emerged: Peter Bogdanovich (The Last Film Scene, 1970), Francis Ford Coppola (Godfather, 1972; Conversation, 1974), George Roy Hill (Sting, 1973), Martin Scorsese (Taxi Driver Aggression Study, 1976) and Woody Allen (Intellectual Comedy Annie Hall, 1977; Manhattan, 1979).

Thaw in European communist countries (1957-1983)

The weakening of Stalinist repression in the Eastern European countries allowed artists to move away from the rigid rules of socialist realism in favour of greater creative freedom. Thaw cinema was born in the USSR, referring to the atrocities of World War II, although without references to Stalinist terror. Its representatives were Mikhail Kalatozov (Flying Cranes, 1958), Grigory Chukhraj (Ballad about a Soldier, 1959), Sergei Bondarchuk (The Fate of Man, 1959) and Andrei Tarkovsky (Ivan's Childhood, 1962). Bondarczuk was also famous for his epic War and Peace (1967) based on Leo Tolstoy's novel, and Tarkovsky for his historical drama Andrei Rublow (1966).

Poland also saw a settlement with the war years, which resulted in the birth of a trend called the Polish Film School; the main artists from this period were Andrzej Wajda (Canal, 1956; Ashes and Diamonds, 1958), Andrzej Munk (Eroica, 1957; Bad luck; 1960), Jerzy Kawalerowicz (Train, 1959; Mother Joan of Angels, 1960) and Wojciech Jerzy Has (How to be loved, 1963; Manuscript Found in Zaragoza, 1964); apart from the Polish school, there were also directors Roman Polański (Knife in Water, 1962) and Jerzy Skolimowski (The Description, 1964).

In Czechoslovakia, on the other hand, the phenomenon of the new Czechoslovakian cinema appeared, consisting of formal experiments or thorough criticism of the then society. The greatest creators of the trend were Miloš Forman (Love of the Blonde, 1965) and Jiří Menzel (Trains under Special Surveillance, 1968). After the collapse of the Prague Spring movement, Forman emigrated to the United States, where he made films strongly emphasizing individual freedom, such as Lot over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) and Amadeus (1984). In Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s such filmmakers as Miklós Jancsó (Stars on Hats, 1967), Károly Makk (Love, 1971), Márta Mészáros (Nine Months, 1976) and in the 1980s István Szabó (Mephisto, 1981) appeared.

In 1976 another Polish manifesto was born, known as the cinema of moral anxiety, whose aim was to expose the degeneration of the communist system in Poland and its impact on ordinary people. Among the achievements of this trend were such films as Man of Marble (1976, directed by Andrzej Wajda), Protective Colors (1976, directed by Krzysztof Zanussi), Top Dog (1977, directed by Feliks Falk) and Amateur (1979, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski). This resulted in an openly anti-communist film that captured the mass protests of the opposition just before martial law, Man of Iron (1981, dir. Andrzej Wajda). In the USSR, in turn, as a result of perestroika, Georgian director Tengiz Abuladze made an allegory of anti-Stalinist Penance (1983), heralding the collapse of the Soviet repression system.

French New Wave and its consequences in Western Europe (1958-1979)

The influence of French existentialism in post-war Western Europe caused left-wing sentiments to rise up and speak out against the establishment. The main determinant of changes in Western European cinema was the French New Wave (Nouvelle Vague), whose representatives emphasized creative experiments and disruption of traditional action. The main creators of the New Wave were Claude Chabrol (Beautiful Sergei, 1958), François Truffaut (400 lashes, 1959), Alain Resnais (Hiroshima, My Love, 1959) and Jean-Luc Godard (To Lose Breath, 1960). In the UK, in turn, a formation of young angry people was formed, inspired by the British documentary movement Free Cinema; its main representatives were Karel Reisz (From Saturday to Sunday, 1960), Tony Richardson (Love and Anger, 1959; Loneliness of the Long Distance, 1962; Tom Jones, 1963), Joseph Losey (Accident, 1967; Messenger, 1971), Lindsay Anderson (1969) and John Schlesinger (Night Cowboy, 1969). Buñuel shot increasingly bold manifestos against the hypocrisy of Christianity (Viridiana, 1960) and the bourgeoisie (The Angel of Extermination, 1962; The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, 1972); Pier Paolo Pasolini (Medea, 1969; Decameron, 1971); the bold erotic film The Last Tango in Paris (1971, dir. Bernardo Bertolucci). Michelangelo Antonioni showed a reserve against leftist feelings in Italy, observing the changes of customs in the work Enlargement (1966); Bergman in turn used the progressive brutalization of European cinema to show the anguish of loneliness in the film Whispers and Screams (1972).

The 1970s in Western Europe saw a return to the themes of Fascism and Nazism; the main films dealing with these themes were The Twilight of the Gods (1969, dir. Luchino Visconti), The Conformist (1969, dir. Bernardo Bertolucci), Amarcord (1973, dir. The Tin Drum (1979, dir. Volker Schlöndorff); Schlöndorff, together with Werner Herzog (The Riddle of Kaspar Hauser, 1974) and Rainer Werner Fassbinder (The Merchant of Four Seasons, 1972), renewed the forgotten tradition of German cinematography.

Development of national cinematography (1959-1975)

The French New Wave became an impulse for the development of national cinematography. At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, Brazilian cinematography gained recognition thanks to the film Black Orpheus (1959, directed by Marcel Camus) and the realistic Cinemo Novo trend (including the work of Glauber Rocha). In 1964 the Greek film The Greek Zorba (dir. Michalis Kakojanis), referring to local folklore, was released. The Spanish cinematography was made famous by Carlos Saura with his work Feed the Ravens (1975) just after the end of the Frankist regime. At the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, Australian cinema experienced a renaissance, mainly thanks to Peter Weir (Picnic at Hanging Rock, 1975), Fred Schepisi and George Miller.

Contemporary cinema (1970s - contemporary)

In the United States, in the mid-1970s, thanks to the use of the latest computer technologies and special effects, numerous productions from the genres of science fiction and adventure cinema (New Adventure Cinema) were created. Its main representatives were Steven Spielberg (The Seekers of the Lost Ark, 1981; E.T., 1981), George Lucas (Star Wars, 1977) and Robert Zemeckis (Return to the Future, 1985); after the collapse of the new American cinema it was high-budget productions that played a major role in shaping contemporary Hollywood. However, the main American cinema did not give up its social ambitions; the main problem at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s was settling the social consequences of the Vietnam War. The films that gained recognition at that time included Deer Hunter (1978, dir. Michael Cimino), Time of the Apocalypse (1979, dir. Francis Ford Coppola), The Bird (1984, dir. Alan Parker) and Pluto (1986, dir. Oliver Stone). Other Hollywood achievements at the end of the twentieth century include Rain Man (1987, dir. Barry Levinson), which touches upon the problem of autism; Dancing with Wolves (1991, dir. Kevin Costner), a revisionist western dedicated to the annihilation of Indian culture; Schindler's List (1993, dir. Steven Spielberg), a drama about the Holocaust in Europe; and the powerful melodrama of the Titanic (1997, dir. James Cameron). The opposition to the Hollywood works was independent cinema, especially the work of Jim Jarmusch (Unlike in paradise, 1984).

In Western Europe, after the stalling of protest movements in the 1980s, national cinemas followed different paths. Great Britain became famous for producing costume films, such as Misja (1986, directed by Roland Joffé), Pokój z widokiem (1986, directed by James Ivory) and Ostatni cesarz (1987, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci); there, after Margaret Thatcher's reign ended, proletarian cinema was created to address the social consequences of neo-conservative reforms (including Trainspotting, 1996, directed by Danny Boyle). In continental Europe, a postmodern trend was born, characterized by references to mass culture, high brutality or a mixture of different styles and genres. Among the personalities of European cinema, Pedro Almodóvar (Women on the verge of a nervous breakdown, 1987), Krzysztof Kieślowski (Decalogue, 1988; trilogy Three Colors, 1993-1994), Emir Kusturica (Time of the Gypsies, 1988; Underground, 1995) and Peter Greenaway (The Books of Prosper, 1993) appeared at the time. Postmodernism appeared simultaneously in the United States through the work of David Lynch (Wild at Heart, 1990), Quentin Tarantino (Pulp Fiction, 1994) and the Coen brothers (Fargo, 1996). The last manifesto of 20th century cinema was the Danish Dogma 95, initiated by Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, whose demands were not fully realized in practice. Trier became more famous for his artistic provocations Breaking the Waves (1996) and Dancing in the Darkness (2001). The film The Pianist (2002, directed by Roman Polański) also enjoyed considerable international success.

The development of cinema also entailed the development of computer animation techniques. The first feature-length animation made entirely with the use of computer technology was Toy Story (1995, dir. John Lasseter). Hayao Miyazaki elevated animation to the rank of art with his film In the Land of the Gods (2001). The first attempt to combine documentary film with animation in the history of cinema was Waltz with Bashir (2008, dir. Ari Folman) about the repercussions of the war in Lebanon.

Further development of national cinematography (since 1991)

In the 1990s representatives of subsequent cinematographs gained recognition. Belgian cinema gained fame thanks to the work of Jaco Van Dormael (Toto the Hero, 1991) and the Dardenne brothers (Promise, 1996); among Asian cinematographs, Chinese works stood out (All or Nobody, 1999, dir. Zhang Yimou; Thirsty of Love, 2000, dir. Wong Kar-Wai; Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, 2001, dir. Ang Lee) and Korean (Island, 2000, dir. Kim Ki-duk). Iranian artists have also gained popularity, including Abbas Kiarostami (Under Olives, 1994; Taste of Cherry, 1997) and Asghar Farhadi (What do you know about Elly?, 2009, Separation, 2011). New Zealand artists have made a name for themselves with Jane Campion (Piano, 1993), Lee Tamahori (Only Instinct, 1994) and Peter Jackson (Lord of the Rings trilogy, 2001-2003).

At the beginning of the 21st century, the Romanian new wave, summarizing the social effects of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime and political transformation, gained recognition (Death of Mr. Lazarescu, 2005, dir. Cristi Puiu; 12:08 East of Bucharest, 2006, dir. Corneliu Porumboiu; 4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days, 2007, dir. Cristian Mungiu); the Austrian director Michael Haneke (White Ribbon, 2009; Love, 2012) and the Hungarian individualist Béla Tarr (Satanic Tango, 1994; Turin Horse, 2011) have also received recognition.

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