The whole universe we know is in a bubble and is expanding in another, additional dimension,” claim researchers from the University of Uppsala. The concept proposed by the researchers can help to solve the dark energy puzzle.
We have known for several decades now that the Universe is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. Researchers believe that the responsible for this is a mysterious cosmic force that acts in opposition to gravity – dark energy. Understanding the nature of this force is one of the greatest puzzles of modern physics.
Some theorists thought that the puzzle would be explained by string theory. According to it, all matter is composed of tiny, vibrating, string-like objects. All particles are one-dimensional chains whose vibrations determine properties such as mass and charge.
The theory also assumes that there are more spatial dimensions than the three we know from primary school, and how these additional dimensions are configured determines the characteristics of the Universe we perceive. These additional dimensions are inaccessible and elude our experience, so we cannot observe them. The string theory also allows for the existence of many unique universes in which our particular one is only a small part of a larger whole.
For a long time string theory has been the main candidate for a theory of everything that would coherently describe all the physical phenomena we observe. Over the years, new models of string theory have emerged that would take into account and explain the dark energy puzzle. However, as some researchers claim, none of the models proposed so far is true.
The solution proposed by scientists from the University of Uppsala may help explain the dark energy puzzle. The concept of Swedish researchers assumes that our Universe is in a bubble, or rather on the edge of this bubble, which expands in another, additional dimension. Going further, all the matter we observe consists of the ends of strings that extend along this extra dimension.
In other words, we live within the boundaries of one of the many expanding bubbles, and the dark energy is subtlely induced by the interaction between the walls of these bubbles and other dimensions. The Big Bang, in which our Universe was born, is the moment when our bubble began to expand. The matter in our reality is the ends of strings stretching into additional dimensions.
The concept of scientists is presented in detail in “Physical Review Letters”.
- It is becoming more and more obvious that the models proposed so far in string theory to describe dark energy suffer from mathematical problems,” said Ulf Danielsson from the University of Uppsala, co-author of the publication. The main problem, according to the researcher, is that the equations governing string theory say that every universe with our version of dark energy should quickly disintegrate and disappear.
The model of scientists from Uppsala provides a new, different picture of the origin and future fate of our Universe. It can pave the way for methods of testing string theory.